“What really knocks me out is a book that, when you're all done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. That doesn't happen much, though.”
― J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye ―
Writing has been an important skill in a world, people compose texts, or blogs or post information, announcements and reactions in social networks, e-mail and ‘tweet’ to friends and the like. People in the academe pay more serious attention to their writing proficiency. Despite the more serious attitude towards the rules and correctness or accuracy and meaning or communicative purposes, academics are still looking forward to honor and master these rules and model communicative competence.
Successful writers writes to win a successful writer does what they do well, but also in a timely manner, tackle projects every single day, save for one total writing rest day per week. Whether a writer wants to achieve a particular grade on a paper, persuade a specific audience to adopt an argument, or obtain an interview with a company, a writer with a purpose that he or she aims to fulfill.
1. How may the respondents’ output in their writing task be described in terms of Rhetorical Appeal in the following Methods of Persuasion?
2. What is the impact of the analysis on the teaching of writing?
The results of this study will be beneficial and significant primarily to both students and teachers. Students will be enlightened and broaden their appreciation for writing thus, becoming more productive not only in terms of writing but in their future endeavors as professionals. For teachers, on the other hand, this will be an eye-opener for them to be able to think of and use new approaches in motivating and teaching students to write. School administrators and curriculum developers shall also benefit from this study in terms of using the results of this study as reference to find ways of improving instruction in writing, formulating better policies, restructuring the curriculum, and developing resource materials to improve the teaching of writing. Parents will also be able to realize the challenges that their students are facing and be able to provide the support their children need for their development as writers. Lastly, this study will hopefully be a significant reference material for future researchers in enriching their literature.
Writing is a type of correspondence that enables to put their emotions and thoughts on paper, to sort out their insight and convictions into persuading contentions, and to pass on significance through all around built content. In its most progressive shape, written articulation can be as clear as a gem. As youngsters take in the means of writing, and as they produce new ideas upon old, written work advances from the primary basic sentences to expand stories and papers.
Writing to an audience(s) for some specific reason, such on the grounds that it is a need, require, or have been required to make a settled space for somebody to get and respond to our thoughts. The setting of the piece additionally decides the fitting tone, level of vocabulary, kind and arrangement of proof, classification, and then even accentuation.
Writing, obviously, is among the soonest types of correspondence and has turned into the most broad, different, and flexible of methods for correspondence even as the mechanism of transmission has transformed from a delegate bearing a letter to mass-showcased productions, to advanced parcels streaming over the web. To build up a talk of writing, to comprehend what we should achieve to write effectively, we have to address how writing conveys, how it can make situations of important communication, and how it can address the situation it brings out and takes part in. There are a few services of writing that have no more striking than eye to eye discussion, as when individuals sitting by one another pass notes in light of a speaker's remarks—an amusing "beyond any doubt" wrote. However, regardless of whether the note is to be passed over the room, it would need to show a great part of the setting that would have vanished when the note achieved its goal. Bazerman, Charles. (2013)
Every act of communication attempts to persuade a particular audience to understand an idea or point of view put forth by the communicator. Thus, argument is the process of persuading an audience to understand and/or behave in an intended manner. Aristotle, the ancient Greek Godfather of rhetoric, described speech and writing as distinct entities. The art of science of persuading through speech he called dialectic and persuading through writing he called rhetoric.
Rhetoric is defined as discovering in the particular case the available means of persuasion. It is the act of writing and speaking effectively, teaches you how to convince people by communicating your message. It is a technique of using language effectively and persuasively in spoken or written from.
Plato once said Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of man.
Writing is not only one practice or action. The various purposes and classifications both develop out of and make differed connections between the writer and the reader, and existing connections are reflected in degrees of convention in language, just as presumptions about what information and experience are as of now shared, and what should be clarified. Composing in light of certain reason, the author centers consideration around what the group of spectators is thinking or accepting; different occasions, the essayist center more around the data she or he sorting out, or all alone developing musings and sentiments. In this way, the reasoning, strategies, and physical organization recorded as a hard copy are formed as per the creator's purpose(s). the requirements of group of spectators, and the shows of the class. Regularly, in school, the students compose just to demonstrate that they accomplished something they were approached to do, so as to get credit for it. Or then again, students are shown a single kind of writing and are persuaded that this sort will get the job done in all circumstances. Since writers outside school have a wide range of purposes beyond exhibiting responsibility and they utilize increasingly different classifications of writing, it is significant that students experiences inside school that train them how writing contrasts with reason, group of spectators, and different components of the circumstance. Indeed, even with progressively academic settings like school courses, the qualities of good writing differ among disciplines. In this manner the customary purposes that are recognized in school, purposes for composing incorporate creating interpersonal organizations; prevailing upon others to improve society; supporting individual and profound development; pondering encounters; conveying expertly; and scholastically; building associations with others, including companions, family, and similarly invested people; and participating in stylish encounters. So as to give high quality writing opportunity to all students, teachers need to comprehend the wide range of purposes for which individuals compose and the various types of writings and procedure that emerge from those reasons; methodologies and structures for composing for open cooperation in a popularity based society; ways individuals use writing for self-improvement, articulation, and reflection, and how to energize and build up this sort of writing; how individuals make imaginative and artistic writings; stylish kinds; for the motivations behind stimulation, delight, or investigation; the manners in which computerized situations have included new modalities while always making new public, crowds, purposes, and solicitations to make; the scope of non-open employments of writing for self-association, reflection, arranging, and the appropriate genre, and the numerous apparatuses, advanced and something else, that individuals use for these reasons; these types for changed scholastic orders and the reason and connections that make those structures; methods for sorting out and changing school educational programs so as to give understudies satisfactory training in differed reason for reviewing how to outline all necessary plans that approaches understudies to compose for shifted purposes and spectators. Composing is installed in complex social connections and their proper dialects. Composing occur amidst a web or connections. The educating of composing ought to accept understudies will start with the language with which they are most at home and generally conversant in their discourse. That language might be an assortment of English or an alternate language out and out. The dialects understudies adapt first are the bedrock whereupon all other language conventions and structures will be developed. A definitive objective isn't to leave understudies where they are, be that as it may, yet to push them toward more prominent adaptability, so they can compose for their own lingerie as well as for more extensive crowds. Educators will need to participate in aware request with understudies about huge contrasts between designs in their utilization of their first language and all the more ordinarily composed English. Indeed, even as they advance toward all the more generally utilized English, authors find that it isn't fundamental or attractive to dispose of the manners in which their family and individuals in their local use words to convey what needs be. The educating of greatness recorded as a hard copy implies adding language to what as of now exists, not subtracting. Further, master composing instructors intentionally instruct understudies to consolidate their legacy and home dialects globally and deliberately in the content they compose. The objective is to make more connections accessible, not less. Conventions of finished and edited text are an important dimension of the relationship between writers and readers. Each teacher has to resolve a strain between writing as creating and forming thoughts and writing as a final creation, exhibiting anticipated surface shows. . On the other hand, it is significant for writing to be as accurate as possible and for students to be able to produce accurate texts so that readers can read and make meaning from them, on the other hand, attaining correctness is only one set of things writers must be able to do; a accurate document empty of ideas or inappropriate to its audience or purpose is not a good piece of writing. There is no equation for resolving this problem. In spite of the fact that it may not happen simultaneously. If a student’s mental energies are concentrated on new intellectual challenges, he or she may attend less complete details of grammar and punctuation. An excess of accentuation on rightness can really hinder a writer advancement. By a same token, without mastering agreements for written discourse, writers may find their efforts observed less highly by readers they had wanted to influence. Every teacher must be proficient enough about the entire landscape of writing instruction to control specific students toward an objective, including increasing fluency in new situations, mastering agreements, and perhaps most significant, increasing rhetorical sophistication and suitability—all of which work together. National Council of Teachers of English (2017)
Writers keep a picture in their minds of traditional syntax, spelling, and accentuation so as to think about what is as of now on the page to what their group of experts anticipates. They likewise should know about complex choices and bigger language decisions that will best well-spoken their thoughts and produce the most attractive impact on their readers. Language decisions might involve the personality an essayist looks to ventures, and those characters may not be profitably institutionalized. In advanced conditions, there might be a normal method for utilizing language because of the idea of the stage, for example, in messaging or blogging where the traditional use may contrast from language in other setting. Everybody has the ability to compose; composing can be instructed; and educators can assist understudies with turning out to be better scholars. Writing instructions must include sufficient for class open doors for writing, remembering writing for advanced spaces, and ought to include writing for a variety of purposes and audience, including audiences outside school. Educators need to help students in the advancement of writing lives, propensities, and inclinations for life outside school. The teaching of writing ought to likewise be designed for seeming well and good in an actual existence outside of school, with the goal that composing has sufficient space to develop in people's lives. It is helpful for teachers to think about what components of their educational program they could envision understudies self-supporting outside school. Eventually, those are the exercises that will create all the more composition. National Council of Teachers of English (2017)
Writing is a complex process of putting ideas in text whether print or non-print. It is a “non-linear exploratory and generative process”. Writers have to do a lot of reading to discover ideas and reformulate them to be able to write proficiently (Zamel, 1993).
Writing is not simply the mechanical act of communicating a message. Writing constructs not only the object of writing, but the subject as well. When one writes, one ultimately presents or re-presents the self. It is a powerful means of self-expression. There is “no such thing as ‘impersonal’ writing” Ivanič and Camps (2001).
Writing is extremely important in today’s society. Communication is transmitted more through writing than any other type of media. The most binding contracts and agreements are written and signed. Writing is part of a creative project, whether it is a film, building, or a piece of literature. Without writing the flow of ideas is halted shortly beyond the source (Brandon Gustafson Linda Tran Jocelyn Buck, 2010).
The success of a written task is based on people’s opinions or point of view that is why the aim of academic writing is argumentative. However, due to knowledge increase and social media’s people were able to express their sentiments freely, that is why writers are having difficulty to convince there readers. The good news is that Aristotle defines the three different strategies called Rhetorical Appeal.
Successful composition starts with perceiving the reason for the content. While being acquainted with explanatory ideas, among the main interests cover to find out the expository interests. There are three principles claim that can be utilized: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. Rhetoric is surrounding us in discussion, in films, in notices and books, in non-verbal communication, and in workmanship. We utilize rhetoric whether we're aware of it or not, but rather getting to be aware of how rhetoric functions can change speaking, and writing, making us more effective and capable communicators and additionally observing gatherings of people
Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available of persuasion–Aristotle
Rhetoric was understood to involve invention, arrangement, style memory, and delivery, all of which could be taught. Aristotle’s theory of rhetorical invention was based on topics, or places from which to launch arguments, such as similarity and difference, better and worse, etc. Arrangement concerned the structure of a speech, style and delivery concerned methods of effective presentation and memory, obviously restricted to unwritten speeches, concerned aids to memorization. Ballard, Glenn PhD. (2013)
With Aristotle’s account, rhetoric earned a place in the essential human arts. The ability to speak persuasively about political and social matters was an essential capability of the citizens of Greek city states, and subsequently of the Roman Republic. Ballard, Glenn PhD. (2013)
Aristotle principle that from their general surroundings, speakers could watch how communication happens and utilize that understanding, to create sound and persuading contentions. Keeping in mind the end goal to do that, speakers expected to take a glimpse at three components, graphically spoken to by what we presently call the rhetorical triangle.
Aristotle's triangle of rhetoric incorporates three interests of influence in particular logos, ethos, and pathos. At the base of all expository hypotheses is the possibility that powerful contentions must be discerning and take after a hierarchical example to make a sentiment of consistency for the group of audience. This outcome is refined by surrounding the contention with two primary ideas from the arranging stage through the introduction of the contention.
Logos a content that comprises of conclusions in light of facts and statistics demonstrates confirmations of the appeal logos. It accentuates thinking, and includes the content in itself as far as length, procedure, difficulty, and other factors (Hyland, 2005:65) Logos emphasis around that the substance of content should consist of understandable arguments to accomplish its persuasive impacts. Scientific researches, figures, numbers, facts and similar are all confirmation of the appeal logos (Connor &Gladkov, 2004:261ff).
Logos depends on reasoning and confirmation, and is regularly upheld by facts and arguments conferred through numbers, statistics, information, and comparable (Facts, figures, numbers, measurements, and so forth.). Different statements which have a place towards logos are while specifying historical events and realities which apply to (Referring to chronicled occasions and foundation). Feature (Scientific research). Connor and Gladkov (2004) call this component "data" and clarify the persuasive technique through Aristotle's words "The speaker must, most importantly, be furnished with an uncommon determination of premises (facts)…The more facts he has at his order, the all the more effortlessly he will make focuses" (Aristotle 1932:157, in Connor and Gladkov, 2004:265). Feature ("Cause—Means—Consequences") is the point at which a text illustrates an issue, clarifies its motivation or impacts, and is trailed by a presentation of the action to be made, and expressing its outcomes (Conner and Gladkov 2004:261ff).
Another appeal in Aristotle’s triangle of rhetoric is pathos which refers to the Greek word for experience or emotion. It involves the audience feelings. A common way of using pathos in argumentation is to include real life stories or common memories. These make it easier for an audience to relate to the text and therefore feel empathy or sadness (European Rhetoric [www]n.d)
Ostman (2005), in Halmari &Virtanen 2005: 192f) Those individuals make aware with their decisions to generate messages which reflect on the learners' knowledge and the socio-social perspectives. However, it relies upon the how the expression will be translated and in this way the level of persuasiveness in a message can be contended to depend on the receiver as well. Pathos is trigger audience feelings, for example, joy, pity, outrage, and so forth. To influence the audience to feel a connection is of great importance in the appeal of pathos. If the author knows their intended interest group, the author can utilize certain qualities and convictions to accomplish a connection. By including anecdotes, it engages, the audience and it is an easier way for the audience to communicate with the content's specific situation (ibd [www]) Emotions include a critical part inside influence as they may trigger a specific reaction or response with its audience(Connor and Gladkov, 2004:268f).
Ethos is associated with the word character in the Greek language. The argumentation procedure of ethos depends on the validity of the character. In other words the individual who express the announcement, the speaker or creator. Aristotle contends that competence, great goal and sympathy are strong factors to accomplish credibility.
Ethos refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. If the speaker is persuasive the audience follows him or her. In his discourse Aristotle calls “face created by the discourse”. This conditioned by the fact that the orator earns the credibility only in case if his or her arguments are competent, reliable, fair and frank. Also, argumentation is successful when it appeals to the audience with solidarity, engagement, and good will. Amossy (2000, p.60-62)
The impact of ethos is often called the argument’s ‘ethical appeal’ from credibility. French linguist Domninque Maningueneau, describes ethos as follows: “Orator’s Ethos is related with his/her speech and the role that corresponds to his/her discourse but not the individual” Maingueneau (1993, p.66)
From a young age onward, children also enter into educational system, first n the home and then in the public institutions. If it is true that form is primary, then learning in a conscious, focal way how form works should be absolutely central to the goals of education. Such a program would then place the kind of rhetoric and described at the core of education.
Throughout certain periods of history, learning how rhetoric worked in the particular cultural contexts of given society was at if not the core of the curriculum. This was true in classical Greek and Roman education, most notably in the theorists Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian (Clark 1957). In the Renaissance, Italian rhetorician an professor Giambattista Vico located rhetoric at the center of a humane and liberating pedagogical program, which was a widespread strategy in that era (Vico 1984). The kind of rhetoric taught, at the center of the curriculum, was a rhetoric of intentionally crafted messages designed to persuade. Barry Brummett (2014)
A rhetorically-based curriculum explicitly teaches students a variety of reading strategies, such as making predictions based on the title as to the content of the text; surveying the text to glean additional information about the content of the text from subheadings, graphs, and other visual aids; discerning what the author is saying and doing so throughout the text through a careful analysis of content, evidence, and word choice; and understanding how the individual paragraphs work together to support the author’s main claim and purpose. These are the same skills university faculty expects of their freshmen students (ICAS 16). Doughman, 2013
Now, instead of expecting students to simply read a text to gain a basic understanding of the information presented, students are expected to read for a purpose. Oftentimes this encourages multiple readings of a text in which students focus on identifying key ideas, detecting the author’s viewpoint, determining fact from opinion, or any other number of purposes relevant to the particular text under examination. Students are also expected to annotate the text for key terms and important ideas; to identify and analyze the validity of an author’s argument, including the author's use of evidence; and to synthesize information from a variety of sources and to make this synthesis evident by referencing the works of others in their own writing. The end result is a much deeper analysis of the text – in which students understand the main claim and supporting details of a text, are able to analyze the rhetorical decisions an author makes when constructing the text, and ideally apply these same skills when constructing their own texts – with explicit instruction in the critical reading and writing skills identified by the Academic Senates and the Standards as vital for student success in college and the work force. Doughman, 2013
One problem that teachers encounter with a rhetorically-based curriculum is difficulty in determining just what to isolate and emphasize when teaching a text. Teachers may have a desire to use every reading and writing strategy presented in ERWC or LeMaster’s Critical Reading reference guide with every single text they teach.
One way to determine which resources are most advantageous to use is by first analyzing the selected text for main claim, evidence, and significant rhetorical strategies and establishing a purpose for reading for students based on this analysis. LeMaster emphasizes the importance of establishing a purpose for reading by stating, “Every reading task should begin with a purpose, or a prompt, that is articulated either verbally or in writing” to give students an idea as to what they should be thinking about and doing while reading (Critical Reading 3). Corresponding reading strategies and templates are then selected to help support students in the act of reading, as opposed to an arbitrary application of a series of templates to every text simple because the templates are readily available in a teacher reference guide.
Ideally, these reading strategies should not get in the way of the pleasure of reading that teachers should strive to inculcate in their students. The purpose of these reading tasks is to bring to the surface a deeper understanding of some of the more significant rhetorical decisions that the author made when composing the text. Doughman, 2013
Another concern surrounding the implementation of a rhetorically-based curriculum is the failure to recognize argumentation in literature and the resulting loss of literature in the ELA classroom. Rowlands and Fletcher, 2010 further reconcile the notion of teaching literature and expository texts within the ERWC framework by acknowledging that “The specific texts (or genres) students read don’t matter as much as what they learn to do with them” because the “pedagogical premise underpinning the Template’s design is to help students become independent, rhetorical readers of complex and unfamiliar texts (in whatever genre), and to give them multiple experiences as authors entering into academic conversations around those texts” Doughman, 2013
The vision of rhetoric as inseparable from form is clearly and preeminently architectonic, but in a deeper sense than McKeon means, and even deeper than the rhetoric of classical education curricula. Rhetoric that is inherent in, inseparable from, the forms by which we organized our beings, our perceptions, and our social realities. From is rhetorical in ways that go well beyond the traditional crafting of international messages. Form is rhetorical in that it structures being and life. To put this sense of rhetoric-as- form at the core of the curriculum is really to make rhetoric the transcendent foundation the generating matter, of the curriculum.
This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. The emphasis is on qualitative methods, but the study has features of quantification such as calculating the appeals for comparison. This study uses Phenomenological research to better assists discovery and understanding within the data rich environment evolving from the lived experiences of the student participants. Phenomenology seeks to explore contextual meaning through the situational knowledge of those being researched (Creswell, 2009).
The participants of the study are the first year college students in the College of Education Major in English of one university in Angeles City, Pampanga, enrolled in S.Y 2019-2020 and the teacher/s as well.
The instruments that are being use are the written composition of the College student enrolled in Creative Writing.
Written Composition 1: Self- Introduction. This was written during the first week of classes. The learners were instructed to limit the self- introduction to five sentences.
Written Composition 2: “Personal Achievements as a student Make You Proud” The intended linguistic input for this lesson is on the use of past tense and narrative form of discourse.
Written Composition 3: Will Social Media Help or Hurt Your College and Career Goals?
This composition aims to develop expository writing. The students were free to decide as the length of their composition. This instrument is adopted from the study of Trexie O. Alawi 2014
The propose study, the researcher sought the permission of the school to use the instrument in order for the researcher to conduct a writing task to the first year college students, a letter to the School of Education Dean of the school to ask permission to conduct a writing task.
In order to do this, we shall conduct writing task, the goal is to learn about students’ experiences in writing. Using these methods will provide information about a range of experiences, as well as explore the differences in perspectives among the participants.
The collected responses shall be collated. In rhetorical analysis the researcher uses rubric to investigate how the rhetorical appeals were strategically used by the students in their writing task. Frequency and weighted mean shall be used to quantitatively interpret the data. Then, the data shall be analyzed and intervention measures shall be proposed
The Rhetorical Analysis Process Learning how to identify rhetorical tools is an important part of the academic experience. The speaker’s purpose is often directly related to the audience they are addressing and the context of the selected piece. Consider what the author is trying to convince this specific audience to think or do in this specific context. To better understand the speaker’s purpose, identify details about the audience, and consider the historical or cultural context of the piece.
Speakers and writers use rhetorical tools(such as allusion, humor or repletion) to activate or emphasize modes of persuasion or rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos, logos) Rhetorical tools can sometimes be used for more than one appeal, consider how one tool might have multiple functions. Be careful of analyzing the rhetorical tool word choice. It is better to choose specific aspects of the speaker’s word choice to discuss rather than simply citing the author’s choice. For instance, “Elizabeth uses words associated with power associated with power and monarchy to emphasize her role as Queen of England.”
Whether you use a direct quote or a paraphrased idea, referencing specific passages of the text is a crucial step in identifying and exemplifying an author’s use of rhetorical tool. After introducing the rhetorical tool you are highlighting, provide one or two examples of the rhetorical tool from the text. While providing examples is important, avoid overusing evidence since the majority of your paper should be analysis.
Depending on the audience and context of a work, different rhetorical tools will have different effects. When connecting a rhetorical tool to a mode of persuasion, consider these questions: Does the tool appeal to authority?(ethos) Does the tool appeal to logic (Logic)? Does the tool appeal to emotion (pathos)? Although rhetorical tools can be categorized by their connection to ethos, pathos, logos, thses modes of persuasion are not tools themselves.
As you evaluate the speaker and author’s work, consider the modes of persuasion or appeals being made by each rhetorical tool. Consider whether the audience is actually feeling? Thinking what the speaker intended. Did the speaker or author achieve the purpose of the work? Explain why not. Evaluating the effectiveness of rhetorical tools does not include stating an opinion about your agreement with the speaker’s stance or likeability of the speaker or author. Be careful not to confuse the audience’s outward actions. With the effect of the rhetorical tool. Rhetorical analysis is an analysis of how a text or work is constructed and how its structure helps the author or speaker achieve a purpose. Bringham Young University research and writing center
The researcher shall secure permission from the school authorities of the concerned institutions to conduct the study. Students and teachers shall be informed and oriented prior to the conduct of the writing activity and written consents shall be accomplished by the participants for ethical purposes.
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This study is still for Updating and not yet finish. Thank you for understanding